Climate change refers to a long shift in temperature, wind patterns, and weather. Climate change is caused by natural activities but since the 1800s manly activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (which produces heat-trapping gases.) also change the climate. People sometimes relate climate and weather as one thing. But there is a drastic difference between climate and weather. Weather refers to a short-term change in the atmosphere like the day and night temperature, wind, humidity, etc. On the other hand, the climate is a long-term change it tells what is the weather of a region for a long time.

Bhupender Yadav, India’s minister of environment, forest, and climate change told the media that the Government is taking measures to reduce energy sector emissions.

  • Volcanic eruptions

Volcanic eruptions are often discussed with climate change because they release carbon dioxide which promotes global warming and Sulphur dioxide which cause global cooling. Volcanic ash or dust released by it can affect the atmosphere, shade sunlight, and cause temporary cooling.

  • Solar variations

Sun keeps the earth warm small changes in solar can affect our climate by changing the heat of the earth and atmosphere or by changing cloud-forming processes.

  • Heat-trapping greenhouse gases

When greenhouse gases trap the heat they then radiate this heat. some of the heat will absorb by other greenhouse molecules and some of the heat will radiate away from the earth and some of it will wind up back at the planet’s surface again with more greenhouse gases heat will stick around causing the high temperature of the earth.

  • Human-induced factors

Due to the high population, we use more vehicles which release smoke causing harmful pollutants in the air, CFCs, smoking, and factories waste causing high temperature which gradually changes the climate.

  • Land use

Climate can be affected by land through deforestation, and rapid population growth. Changes to the land surface also affect how water moves and whether it evaporates from the soil, drains through the soil or is absorbed by the roots of plants. This is called surface water balance and affects humidity.

  • Topography

Topography greatly affects the climate; it influences wind patterns and weather patterns for example mountains block cold air from flowing over the warm grounds which results in warmer temperatures on one side of the mountain range.

  • Prevailing winds

The direction of prevailing winds determines which type of air mass will move over the area which causes weather. Prevailing winds blow east-west rather than north-south because of the Coriolis effect. It controls the number of water vapors in the air masses and determined the moisture of the area.

  • Global warming

As greenhouse gas concentrations increase global surface temperature increases. The last decennary 2011-2020 is the warmest on record.

  • Ocean currents, vegetation, and so on…

The main cause of today’s climate change is that there is more carbon dioxide in our atmosphere than in the past 3 million years.


According to scientists, dramatic change in greenhouse gas emissions in the past 150 years is increasing the frequency and intensity of extremes such as heatwaves, heavy rainfall, droughts, and cyclones.

Globally, climate change makes almost every extreme heat event hotter, longer, and more often today. A heat wave that would happen once per decade without human influence on the climate is now nearly three times more frequent.


The cop is the United Nations climate change conference and the supreme decision-making body of the United Nations Convention on climate change (UNFCCC).

Cop happens annually in a different city each year. But due to covid in 2021 was delayed by one year, and in 2022, COP26 – the 26th annual conference was held in Glasgow for the next 12 days in November. COP 26 brought 120 world leaders together and over 40,000 registered participants, including 22,274 party delegates, 14.124 observers, and 3.886 media representatives.

The results of COP 26 are “they reflect the interests and the conditions also the disputes, the state of politics will in the world today. They take important steps, but unfortunately, the communal politics will be not enough to conquer some deep contradictions.”


  • In India more than 40% of its population will face water scarcity by 2050.
  • During 1901-2018 the average temperature had already risen by 0.7 degree Celsius.
  • It is expected that there will be a 4.4-degree Celsius rise in average temperature by the end of the twenty-first century.
  • There is a possibility of a rise in temperature by 5.3 degrees Celsius in Delhi by the end of the century.
  • By 2015 deadly heat waves killed thousands of lives in India and Pakistan.
  • Recently in Delhi, the temperature falls to 2.2 degrees Celsius.
  • According to the prime minister’s assumption, India will reduce its total projected carbon emissions by 2030. It decreases the carbon intensity of its economy by 45% by the same year and achieves net-zero emissions by 2070.


The national action plan on climate change NAPCC was declared by the prime minister of INDIA on 30th June 2008. its strategy is to enable the country to adapt to climate change and enhance the ecological sustainability of India’s development path.

Eight national missions come under the national plan for climate change-

  1. National solar mission.
  2. National mission for enhanced energy efficiency.
  3. National mission on sustainable habitat.
  4. National water mission.
  5. National Mission for sustaining the Himalayan atmosphere.
  6. National mission for a green India.
  7. National mission for sustainable agriculture.
  8. National mission on understanding knowledge for climate change.

  Principles of this plan-

  • Attaining national growth and poverty alleviation objectives while ensuring ecological sustainability.
  • Protecting the poor through a comprehensive and sustainable development strategy, is sensitive to climate change.
  • Systematic and cost-effective strategies for end-use demand side management.
  • Extensive and accelerated distribution of appropriate technologies for adaptation and mitigation.
  • All the new innovative markets also have regulatory, and voluntary mechanisms for sustainable development.
  • The plan also consists of Effective implementation through unique linkages with civil society, LGUs, public and private partnerships all around.


Climate change is a major challenge to manage. Here we discuss what is climate change its causes, facts, and government policies about it. It is essential to have the correct knowledge of climate change so that we can prevent the world its impacts.

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